Modernisation of medieval defensive buildings
Medieval castle reconstructed and supplemented with modern fortification elements after the emergence of firearms.
(e.g. Herrmann Castle, Narva, Estonia, see above)
Bow and arrow dominated for thousand years in the middle ages whereas war-like conflicts were solved with canons and small arms as of the 15th century. The defensive installation of castles could no longer cope with the emergence of new weapons. Many castle owners in central Europe were forced to reconstruct their castle ramparts and towers in a way that canons could be installed and firearms be used. The bastioned fortress construction opened a new chapter of historic installations.
In this way, interesting combinations of medieval and modern fortress architecture evolved which were often not recognizable at first sight. Many fortified castles are located in the south-east of Poland or Baden-Württemberg. Only 150 years ago, the Hohenzollern dynasty of German emperors built their family seat Castle Zollern-Alb as a last fortified castle. Today, it is a visitor magnet with a wonderful view of Swabia’s landscape.
Especially in today’s Austria, Hungary and Slovakia, the fights with the Turks lasting for several hundred years resulted in the construction of many powerfully fortified castles such as Castle Forchenstein, Castle Nitra or Castle Hollókő.